25 Mainstream Papers that Show Measles Vaccines Cannot Eradicate Measles

To keep us all on our toes between pandemic Covid and pandemic Disease X it looks like the global agencies have brought back the hardy perennial of measles to scare and divide us. In this regard it is essential to acknowledge that measles vaccines cannot eradicate measles to which end I submit 25 mainstream studies, all by vaccine proponents, many of them prominent which demonstrate this. Readers please feel free to add to the list.

Bolotin et al. What is the evidence to support a correlate of protection for measles? A systematic review. J Infect Dis 2020;221:1576–83

Cherry, J. D., & Zahn, M. (2018). Clinical Characteristics of Measles in Previously Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Patients in California. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 67(9), 1315–1319. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy286

Fiebelkorn, A. P., Coleman, L. A., Belongia, E. A., Freeman, S. K., York, D., Bi, D., … Beeler, J. (2016). Measles Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response, Cell-Mediated Immunity, and Immunoglobulin G Antibody Avidity Before and After Receipt of a Third Dose of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine in Young Adults. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 213(7), 1115–1123. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv555

Glass, K., & Grenfell, B. T. (2004). Waning immunity and subclinical measles infections in England. Vaccine, 22(29-30), 4110–4116. ​https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15364464/

Gibney, K. B., Attwood, L. O., Nicholson, S., Tran, T., Druce, J., Healy, J., … Cross, G. B. (2019). Emergence of attenuated measles illness among IgG positive/IgM negative measles cases, Victoria​, Australia 2008-2017. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz363

Heffernan J.M., & Keeling M.J. (2009). Implications of vaccination and waning immunity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1664), 2071–2080. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2009.0057

Kang, H. J., Han, Y. W., Kim, S. J., Kim, Y.-J., Kim, A.-R., Kim, J. A., … Kim, S. S. (2017). An increasing, potentially measles-susceptible population over time after vaccination in Korea. Vaccine, 35(33), 4126–4132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.058

Kang, J. H., & Yoo, J.-H. (2019). The Measles Strikes Back. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 34(6), e59. https://doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e59

Kontio, M., Jokinen, S., Paunio, M., Peltola, H., & Davidkin, I. (2012). Waning antibody levels and avidity: implications for MMR vaccine-induced protection. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 206(10), 1542–1548. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jis568

Leuridan, E., Hens, N., Hutse, V., Ieven, M., Aerts, M., & Van Damme, P. (2010). Early waning of maternal measles antibodies in era of measles elimination: longitudinal study. BMJ , 340, c1626. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c1626

Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Deng, X., Hu, Y., Wang, Z., Lu, P., … Zhu, F.-C. (2018). Waning immunity of one-dose measles-mumps-rubella vaccine to mumps in children from kindergarten to early school age: a prospective study. Expert Review of Vaccines, 17(5), 445–452.​ ​https://doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2018.1445529

Markowitz LE, Albrecht P, Rhodes P, Demonteverde R, Swint E, Maes EF, Powell C, Patriarca PA., ‘Changing levels of measles antibody titers in women and children in the United States: impact on response to vaccination. Kaiser Permanente Measles Vaccine Trial Team.’, Pediatrics. 1996 Jan;97(1):53-8.

Melenotte C, Zandotti C, Gautret P, Parola P, Raoult D. Measles: is a new vaccine approach needed? Lancet Infect Dis 2018; 18:1060–1.

Mossong, J., & Muller, C. P. (2003). Modelling measles re-emergence as a result of waning of immunity in vaccinated populations. Vaccine, 21(31), 4597–4603.

Mossong, J., Nokes, D. J., Edmunds, W. J., Cox, M. J., Ratnam, S., & Muller, C. P. (1999). Modeling the impact of subclinical measles transmission in vaccinated populations with waning immunity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150(11), 1238–1249.

Nkowane, B. M., Bart, S. W., Orenstein, W. A., & Baltier, M. (1987). Measles outbreak in a vaccinated school population: epidemiology, chains of transmission and the role of vaccine failures. American Journal of Public Health, 77(4), 434–438. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.77.4.434

Orenstein, W. A., Strebel, P. M., Papania, M., Sutter, R. W., Bellini, W. J., & Cochi, S. L. (2000). Measles eradication: is it in our future? American Journal of Public Health, 90(10), 1521–1525. Retrieved from​ ​https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11029981

Pannuti, C. S., Morello, R. J., Moraes, J. C. de, Curti, S. P., Afonso, A. M. S., Camargo, M. C. C., & Souza, V. A. U. F. de. (2004a). Identification of primary and secondary measles vaccine failures by measurement of immunoglobulin G avidity in measles cases during the 1997 São Paulo epidemic. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 11(1), 119–122.

Paunio et al, ‘Secondary measles vaccine failures identified by measurement of IgG avidity: high occurrence among teenagers vaccinated at a young age’, Epidemiol Infect. 2000 Apr;124(2):263-71.

Stanley A Plotkin, ‘Is There a Correlate of Protection for Measles Vaccine?’, The Journal of Infectious Disease 1 November 2019

Gregory A. Poland and Robert M. Jacobson, ‘The Re-Emergence of Measles in Developed Countries: Time to Develop the Next-Generation Measles Vaccines?’, Vaccine. 2012 Jan 5; 30(2): 103–104., https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3905323/

Rosen JB, Rota JS, Hickman CJ, Sowers SB, Mercader S, Rota PA, Bellini WJ, Huang AJ, Doll MK, Zucker JR, Zimmerman CM., ‘Outbreak of measles among persons with prior evidence of immunity, New York City, 2011’, Clin Infect Dis. 2014 May;58(9):1205-10. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu105. Epub 2014 Feb 27

Felicia Roy, Lillian Mendoza, Joanne Hiebert, Rebecca J. McNall, Bettina Bankamp, Sarah Connolly, Amy Lüdde, Nicole Friedrich, Annette Mankertz, Paul A. Rota, Alberto Severini , ‘Rapid Identification of Measles Virus Vaccine Genotype by Real-Time PCR’ https://jcm.asm.org/content/55/3/735″Ofthe 194 measles virus sequences obtained in the United States in 2015, 73 were identified as vaccine sequences (RJ McNall, unpublished data)”.

Waaijenborg S., Hahné S.J.M., Mollema L., Smits G.P., Berbers G.A.M., van der Klis F.R.M., de Melker H.E., and Wallinga J., ‘Waning of Maternal Antibodies Against Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella in Communities With Contrasting Vaccination Coverage’, J Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 1; 208(1): 10–16

Zhao et al, ‘Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination’ Virol J. 2010; 7: 87., Published online 2010 May 6. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-87

Originally published by Age of Autism

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